Tạp chí Nghiên cứu Lịch sử số 2 năm 2018

05/04/2018
Tạp chí Nghiên cứu Lịch sử số 2-2018 có bài viết của các tác giả: Nguyễn Thị Thanh Bình, Nguyễn Thị Mỹ Hạnh, Nguyễn Thị Tuyết Nhung, Lương Thị Hồng, Vũ Thị Thu Giang, Nguyễn Thị Thu Thủy, Hoàng Anh Tuấn, Đỗ Thanh Bình.

MỤC LỤC

 

Nguyễn Thị Thanh Bình: Nhìn lại quan hệ làng - nước ở người Việt qua các hướng tiếp cận nghiên cứu.

 

Nguyễn Thị Mỹ Hạnh: Quan hệ Việt Nam - Lào nửa đầu thế kỷ XIX: Đặc điểm, thực chất và bài học kinh nghiệm.

 

Nguyễn Thị Tuyết Nhung: Chính sách tuyển mộ lính khố xanh, khố đỏ người Việt sang Lào của chính quyền thực dân Pháp (1939-1945).

 

Lương Thị Hồng: Mạng lưới giao thông trong vùng Pháp chiếm đóng từ năm 1945 đến năm 1954.

 

Vũ Thị Thu Giang: Vai trò của Mỹ trong việc giải quyết vấn đề Biển Đông từ đầu thế kỷ XXI đến nay.

 

Nguyễn Thị Thu Thủy: Tư liệu về chuyến đi sứ Trung Quốc năm 1833 của sứ thần triều Nguyễn: Nguồn gốc văn bản và giá trị sử liệu.

 

Hoàng Anh Tuấn: Phụ nữ Đàng Ngoài thế kỷ XVII qua một số nguồn tư liệu phương Tây.

 

Đỗ Thanh Bình: Bàn về cách tiếp cận mới đối với một số vấn đề lịch sử khi viết sách giáo khoa Lịch sử.

 

TÓM TẮT

 

The Communal Village and State Relations in Vietnamese through Research Approaches in Retrospect

 

 

Dr. Nguyen Thi Thanh Binh

Institute of Ethnology, VASS

 

The Vietnamese communal village and state relations, peasant and rural have been subjects which have been attracted great attention from Vietnamese and international scholarship in the 1960s and 1990s. Nevertheless, in recent years, this topic has received less attention.

 

This article seeks to reappraise the communal village and state relations through research approaches. The author argues that the framework and the social structure of the communal village have changed over time; the dynamics of the relationship therefore have undergone many changes. As for the present-day communal village and state relations, it is required to understand and to put it in the new context with many new factors.

 

 

The Vietnamese and Laotian Relations in the First Half of 19th Century:

Characteristics, Nature and Experienced Lessons

 

 

Dr. Nguyen Thi My Hanh

Faculty of Vietnamese Studies

Hanoi National University of Education

 

The article seeks to revisit the relations between Vietnam and Laos in the first half of the nineteenth century when Vietnam was still independent in the diplomatic relations with the outside world. The friendship between the two countries at that time was expressed in a variety of activities. In addition to these diplomatic activities, two sides came to conflicts in the border area. Nonetheless, on the Vietnamese and Laotian general picture, the color of peace and friendship was still the main stream. This success has left many valuable lessons for current and future Vietnamese and Laotian relations.

 

The Policy of Recruiting Gardes Indigènes, Tirailleurs Annamites in Laos of the French Colonial Government (1893-1945)

 

 

                                                  Dr. Nguyen Thi Tuyet Nhung

Faculty of History

Hanoi National University of Education, No 2

 

Since the conquest of Laos and Indochina, the French implemented the policy “dividing to rule” in order to sow the dissension with in the people of Indochina Union. With this policy, the French colonial authorities had put troops and Vietnamese officials into Laos to maintain the order and security which serviced the keeping law and order policy of the French empire, as well as provided a large number of Vietnamese workers for the manpower resource of the colonial exploitation. The period from 1893 to 1918 was when the French mainly built up the ruling apparatus and administrative organization in Laos.

 

In order to build up the administrative apparatus, police forces, army services, services for keeping the law and order task as well as starting colonial employment in Laos, the French must only rely on the Vietnamese manpower resource. Because, Laos has a broad land; however, its population density is low. Therefore, the French colonial government had to recruit soldiers and the Vietnamese officials serving in the army and administrative apparatus, which was still quite simply in Laos. In order to recruit and tie the Vietnamese soldiers, who could serve the colonial government in Laos at that time, the French applied some policies such as carrying out sign contract; favoring the salary, the allowance; and promoting the ranks.

 

Among Vietnamese soldiers in Laos, who originated in Tonkin, there were such few people in important positions and promoted to mandarins. However, there still had patriots. After the Indochinese Communist Party was born, the Party has led the movement and enlightenment in class of Vietnamese in Laos. That let people understand the draconian ruling policy of the French government. Many of the soldiers, rehabilitation team, and officials in Laos, then, followed the Vietnamese Revolution.

 

Transportation Systems in the French Controlled Zone (1945-1954)

 

 

Dr. Luong Thi Hong

Institute of History, VASS

 

During the period 1945 to 1954, in Vietnam, two regions were formed: zone occupied by the French government and zone controlled by the Viet Minh government. As the first Indochina war broke out, Viet Minh attempted to completely destroy roads against French troops' attack. Therefore, in the French-occupied zone, aviation was promoted instead of railway and road transportation. The development of transportation systems linked to the expansion of consumption behaviors of imported goods in the French occupied zones. The purpose of this article is to explore how the French attempted to improve the status of their colonial transport systems and how these improvements affected the lives of the local residents. While improving the transportation for profitable gain, the new infrastructure could greatly benefit the lives of Vietnamese. During the period 1945-1954, despite the expansion of the war, the consumption of imported goods continued to be presented and impacted to the life and culture of the local residents resulting in social changes of citizens.

 

 

The U.S’s Role in Solving the East Sea Issues since the Early 21st Century

 

Dr. Vu Thi Thu Giang

Institute of History, VASS

 

          The East Sea issues were originally from disputes among different claims on the territorial sovereignty over islands in the East Sea, in relation to the sovereignty over islands, with elements of law, history and culture. As a superpower, the United States repeatedly expresses their views on these issues. While not standing with any side in the dispute, the United States claims to defend "Freedom of navigation in the East Sea", advocating crisis resolution in international law and multilateral cooperation. The increase of the US role in the East Sea and their strong support to the process of developing the Code of Conduct in the East Sea are a positive direction for the future stability in the East Sea.

 

 

Documents on the Trip to China in 1883 of the Nguyen Dynasty’s Envoy: Sources of Text and Historical Records’ Values

 

Dr. Nguyen Thi Thu Thuy

Faculty of History Center for Women Research and Native Knowledge

Hanoi National University of Education

 

In 1882, after the French military expedition in Tonkin for the second time, the Nguyen court reigned by Tu Duc appointed Pham Than Duat and Nguyen Thuat conducted the trip to the Qing dynasty to seek help from China in order toresist the French colonial invasion. The schedule and the content of the work and the situation of the trip in 1883 were reflected in two books “Envoys’ Diaries”: Vãng sứ Thiên Tân nhật ký (by Pham Than Duat and Nguyen Thuat), Vãng Tân nhật ký (by Nguyen Thuat). The article seeks to present the origins of the text and the historical values ​​of these two diary books to provide insights for the study of diplomatic relations between the Nguyen dynasty and the Qing dynasty and the 1883 envoy.

 

 

Tonkinese Woman in the Late Seventeenth Century as Seen from Western Sources

 

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hoang Anh Tuan

VNU University of Social Sciences and Humanities (Hanoi)

 

It is commonly believed that with the promulgation of the Lê Code and the progressive imposition of the sternly patriarchal Confucian system from the Lê Dynasty from the fifteenth century onward, the sexual norm was strictly guarded while the virginity of women was especially concerned among the communities. This might have been the case for the fifteenth century alone. Around a century later, such regulations were being severely challenged. The sixteenth-century political crises and social disorder, coupled with the arrival of foreign merchants and hence their need of sexual partners throughout the seventeenth century was a decisive catalyst in transforming Vietnamese social norms towards sexual relationships. In the context of early modern East Asian history, this situation was neither “strange” nor “exceptional”; instead, it was rather “ubiquitous” in all regional trading places.

 

Western documents relating to early modern Vietnam widely reflected the freedom in the sexual relationships that the local women could enjoy. Throughout the seventeenth century, such situation was described in many travelogues, diaries, factory records kept by European trading companies. Although the Vietnamese historical documents did not mention this problem in details, patchy information in the Court’s annals did reveal how much the sexual norms in Tonkin had been transformed during the course of seventeenth century. On the basis of preliminary research of the contemporary Western archives, this article highlights the “odd” features and “strange” tendencies in the sexual norms in early modern Vietnam under the influence of international maritime trade.

 

 

Discussions on A New Approach to Some Historical Issues of Writing History Textbooks in the 2017 General Education Curriculum

 

 

Prof. Dr. Do Thanh Binh

Hanoi National University of Education

 

The article seeks to mention a new approach to some issues of history when writing a new history textbook for the curriculum at high schools after 2015. It focuses on how to use some words, names, or concepts of regimes and historical personages. It has academic and scientific features related to students’ awareness. The article aims to highlight the thought of the Cold War era, which rules the thinking and approach of researchers about two sides: “our side and the enemy”. It affected the way of writing and wording about some opposition entities or historical personages, which was despising and expressive. However, in the context of the Cold War and the fact that the whole nation was mobilizing all powers for the struggle for independence, it was justifiable and these books had fulfilled their historic mission.

 

In the new global and domestic context, especially the complete national renovation initiated by the Party and the Government and the national building, unity and protection, the reform of education, content, method and textbook is also an urgent matter. It is necessary to use words and names relating to political regimes or historical personages in a flexible and suitable manner. It relates to not only the scientific feature but also the national unity, which is suitable with the national interest and the new viewpoint of the Party and the Government: “Vietnam wants to be a friend of all countries”. The history cannot be forgotten, but the hatred is needed to be ended to build and protect the nation together.

 

Tạp chí NCLS

Giáo sư Văn Tạo (1926 - 2017) (12/04/2017)

Giáo sư Văn Tạo, tên thật là Nguyễn Xuân Đào, sinh ngày 29 tháng 4 năm 1926, tại La Tỉnh, huyện Tứ Kỳ, tỉnh Hải Dương, công tác ở Ban Văn Sử Địa từ ngày 8 tháng 12 năm 1953 đến năm 1960, ở Viện Sử học từ năm 1960 đến tháng 12 năm 1999 nghỉ hưu. Công tác Đảng từ năm 1953, Đảng ủy viên Đảng ủy Ủy ban Khoa học Nhà nước (nay là Viện Hàn lâm Khoa học xã hội Việt Nam) 1959-1960.